Nutrition For Recovery

By Jim on Wednesday, May 5, 2010


Athletes are always seeking ways to enhance performance and delay fatigue. Muscle glycogen is the major fuel source during prolonged, moderate to high-intensity ex- ercise, and there is a direct relationship between depleted muscle glycogen and fatigue. Therefore, muscle glycogen repletion is vital to recovery time and maintaining top performance for athletes at all levels (1).

Glycogen repletion is important to ensure an athlete’s quick muscle recovery for subsequent practices, especial- ly those who train, or must compete, multiple times in a single day (1). Timing, composition and the quantity of a post-exercise meal or snack is dependent upon the length and intensity of exercises, timing of the next exercise ses- sion, as well as an individual’s needs (1).

Carbohydrates For Recovery— How Much? The current recommendation for daily carbohydrates (CHO) consumption is 5 – 7g CHO/kg/day for the general athlete and 7 – 10g/kg/day for the endurance athlete (1). Consuming CHO immediately after exercise accelerates glycogen repletion (10) because there is increased blood flow to the muscles, which results in heightened sensitiv- ity to insulin (9). Sufficient CHO ingestion over the next 24 hours is also important. Current recommendations are to consume 1 – 1.5g of CHO/kg of body weight within 30 minutes after exercise and then again at 2-hour intervals for the next six hours (1). See Table 1 for some ideas on what to consume within 30 minutes post-exercise.

Carbohydrates For Recovery— What Type? The type of carbohydrate (CHO) an athlete consumes after exercise can affect how much and how quickly he or she resynthesizes glycogen. Foods and/or beverages contain- ing glucose/ sucrose, and those having a high glycemic index are preferred. Glucose and sucrose are preferred over fructose (1), as fructose promotes a lower level of gly- cogen resynthesis as compared to glucose (3) and larger amounts of fructose may promote gastrointestinal dis- tress due to its slower absorption rate(3). High glycemic index foods induce higher muscle glycogen levels as com- pared to low glycemic index foods (1).

Readily available foods, such as whole grain cereal and skim milk, have been found to be an effective post-exer- cise fuel (2). In fact, one study found that the carbohydrate to protein combination found in a bowl of whole grain ce- real and skim milk had a similar effect on muscle glycogen repletion as did sports drinks (2). The combination was also found to positively affect protein synthesis. From this research, it seems that whole foods can be a good alterna- tive to commercial sports drinks, if preferred by the athlete.

Endurance exercise

Endurance athletes may benefit from consuming protein along with carbohydrates after exercise as this combina- tion has been shown to reduce markers of muscle damage and improve post-exercise recovery. This could also have a positive effect on subsequent performances (8).

Some studies have demonstrated a benefit of Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) on muscle recovery (6). BCAA’s appear to affect muscle protein metabolism during and after exercise and prevent muscle damage induced by ex- ercise (6). The release of amino acids from muscles is de- creased when BCAA’s are ingested (6).

Resistance Exercise

The goal for athletes in resistance-type exercise is to in- crease muscle mass and strength. The nutrition inter- vention for this type of activity involves stimulating net muscle protein gains during recovery. PRO ingestion in- creases the rate of muscle protein synthesis and inhibits protein breakdown after training (10). One study found that during prolonged resistance training, post-exercise consumption of CHO and PRO, 1 – 3 hours after resistance training stimulated improvements in strength and body composition better than a placebo (3).

Essential amino acids in a dose of 40g have regularly shown to have an effect in promoting muscle protein syn- thesis and CHO may enhance this effect (3). The findings suggest ingesting 50 – 75g CHO with 20 – 75g PRO after heavy resistance training (3). Furthermore, adding 10g of creatine has shown to produce a significant increase in body mass as compared to just CHO and PRO (3). See Table 2 for possible CHO and PRO combinations.

nsca’s performance training journal • www.nsca-lift.org • volume 9 issue 2 18training table Nutrition For Recovery?

Bottom Line

Nutrition post-exercise has been proven to promote recovery for athletes. Post-exercise nutrition has been shown to increase strength and muscle mass in athletes who participate in resistance-type exercises. Timing, com- position and amount of post-exercise food is dependent upon the indi- vidual, timing of the next exercise session and the activity performed.?

References

1. American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2009(109).

2. Kammer L, Ding Z, Want B, Hara D, Liao Y, Ivy J. Cereal and nonfat milk support muscle recovery following exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2009(6).

3. Kerksick C, Harvey T, Stout J, Campbell B, Wilborn C, Kreider R, Kalman D, Ziegenfuss T, Lopez H, Landis J, Ivy J, Antonio J. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Nutrient timing. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2008(5).

4. Miller SL, Gaine PC, Maresh CM, Armstrong LE, Ebbeling CB, Lamont LS, Rodriguez NR. The Effects of Nutritional Supplementation Throughout an Endurance Run on Leucine Kinetics During Recovery. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2007(17).

5. Mizuno K PhD, Tanaka M PhD, Nozaki S PhD, Mizuma H PhD, Ataka S MD, Tahara T PhD, Sugino T MSc, Shirai T MSc, Kajimoto Y PhD, Kuratsune H PhD, Kajimoto O PhD, Watanabe Y PhD. Antifatigue effects of coenzyme Q10 during physical fatigue. Applied Nutritional Investigation. 2007.

6. Negro M, Giardina S, Marzani B, Marzatico F. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2008(48).

7. Rowlands D, Thorp RM, Rossler K, Graham DF, Rockell MJ. Effect of Protein-Rich Feeding on Recovery After Intense Exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2007(17).

8. Saunders, Michael J. Coingestion of Carbohydrate-Protein During Endurance Exercise: Influence on Performance and Recovery. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2007(17).

9. Stout, Andrew. Fueling and Weight Management Strategies In Sports Nutrition. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2007(07).

10. Van Loon, Luc J.C. Application of Protein or Protein Hydrolysates to Improve Postexercise Recovery. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2007(17).